CompuTec Service Center, Corp.

CPU
Central Processing Unit. The CPU controls the operation of a computer. Units within the CPU perform arithmetic and logical operations and decode and execute instructions. In microcomputers, the entire CPU is on a single chip.


CPU cache
A memory bank between the main memory and the CPU, which enables the computer to read data and execute instructions faster. The CPU cache is static RAM (SRAM); main memory is dynamic RAM (DRAM).See cache and disk cache.


SRAM
Static Random Access Memory. A kind of random access memory that requires a constant supply of power in order to hold its content, but does not require refresh circuitry as dynamic random access memory (DRAM) does.  Each static RAM bit is a flip-flop circuit made of cross-coupled inverters; the activation of transistors controls the flow of current from one side to the other. Unlike read-only memory (ROM), SRAM will lose its content when the power is switched off. Static RAM is usually faster than dynamic RAM, but takes up more space and uses more power.  It is used for the parts of a computer that require highest speed, such as cache memory.


Complete Computer

Computer
An electronic device that has the ability to store, retrieve, and process data, and can be programmed with instructions that it remembers.The physical parts that make up a computer (the central processing unit, input, output, and memory) are called hardware.Programs that tell a computer what to do are called software.


Cache
A temporary storage area for frequently-accessed or recently-accessed data. Having certain data stored in cache speeds up the operation of the computer. There are two kinds of cache: internal (or memory cache) and external (or disk cache).Internal cache is built into the CPU, and external cache is on the motherboard. When an item is called for, the computer first checks the internal cache, then the external cache, and finally the slower, main storage.

 

A cache hit (accessing data from a cache) takes much less time than retrieving information from the main memory; the cache has high-speed memory chips. The cache may also be used as a temporary storage area for data that will be written to disk when the computer is idle.

 

A section of RAM that provides a cache between the disk and the CPU. It enables the computer to operate faster. Retrieving data from hard disk can be slow; a disk caching program helps solve this problem by placing recently accessed data in the disk cache. Next time that data is needed, it may already be available in the disk cache; otherwise a time-consuming search of the hard disk is necessary.


Disk cache
A section of RAM that provides a cache between the disk and the CPU. It enables the computer to operate faster. Retrieving data from hard disk can be slow; a disk caching program helps solve this problem by placing recently accessed data in the disk cache. Next time that data is needed, it may already be available in the disk cache; otherwise a time-consuming search of the hard disk is necessary.


Drivers

Drivers are programs that tell Windows how to communicate with the hardware (video card, modem, printer, and sound card) you have installed on your system. If a driver is not installed or if the wrong driver is installed your devices will not work properly or at all.

 

OverDrive CPU
An Intel Pentium CPU which is designed to replace the older and slower 486 and Pentium CPUs by plugging into the old processor's socket or into an upgrade socket on the motherboard.


Memory

Memory
Also called main memory.The working space used by the computer to hold the program that is currently running, along with the data it needs, and to run programs and process data.The main memory is built from RAM chips.The amount of memory available determines the size of programs that can be run, and whether more than one program can be run at once.Main memory is temporary, and is lost when the computer is turned off.

It is distinguished from more permanent internal memory (ROM) which contains the computer's essential programs, and storage (the disks and tapes which are used to store data).

 


Description

 

Inside Memory: It's All About The Numbers
by John H., The Component Guru

What's The Secret To Memory Specs?
What do all those memory numbers mean?

Memory speeds, timings, and bandwidth play a critical role in the performance of your computer. Unfortunately, many people don’t actually understand what each number represents and what each actually means to them.

DDR Is Not A Video Game!
The most commonly seen memory specifications are those for SPEED!  Numbers similar to PC3200 and DDR-333. While these values represent different specs, they are linked together. For instance, a memory module may be specified as DDR-400 and PC3200 or DDR-333 and PC2700. The “DDR” number refers to the actually frequency of the module (400MHz in the first case), while the “PC” number refers to the transfer rate (3200 MB/s for the same module). You may notice a pattern here. The “PC” is always going to be roughly 8 times the “DDR” number (it's rounded off).   So the next time you see a DDR value, you can actually calculate the PC value from it or at least know the specification is correct.

The PC5400/ PC5300 Controversy
The 8x DDR formula holds true for most of the newer types of DDR memory also. For example, DDR2 modules may show you a speed of DDR-800, which gives a transfer rate of PC6400 (8 X 800). However, one type of memory often causes confusion. That memory is DDR-667. Why this one in particular? This module has an actual transfer rate of 5336 MB/s. (667 x 8 = 5336), which seems to be a difficult number to represent. In most cases, the transfer total is simply rounded off. The problem with DDR-667 is that the various manufacturers making these memory modules don't agree on a common, rounded-off figure. Some call it the more accurate PC5300, while others went with the faster-sounding PC5400, thereby confusing nearly EVERYONE without a Ph.D. in computer engineering. People owning computers using this type of memory run into problems when they try to upgrade their memory and can only find one or the other. They open their computer, or use a memory configurator to find out what type of memory they need, and see PC5300. When they attempt to order the memory, all they find is PC5400, not realizing it’s the same thing as PC5300.  So remember, when it comes to PC5300 it's exactly the same as PC5400!

Memory Timings (Latency)
The other scary set of memory numbers you’ll often encounter are the memory timings, or latency. This is shown by four numbers, separated by hyphens (x-x-x-x). Each measures the time (in clock cycles, just in case you were wondering) the memory takes to perform certain actions (keep this in mind for later). I’m not going to explain specifically what each number means (for those of you that actually have the computer engineering degrees, you already know this. As for the rest of you – this is esoteric info that only folks who have advanced computer degrees need to know). All you really need to know is this -- a lower number is generally faster. The number most often mentioned in the specs is the first digit, known as the CAS latency. In DDR memory, values of 2-3 are common, while in DDR2 it is usually around 5, and can be as high at 10 for DDR3.

Lets Be Clear - Smaller Is Better!
Okay, it’s likely that I’ve thoroughly confused you by telling you that a lower number is faster, rather than what you thought was the fastest, and actually has the slowest timings. Let me clear this up! Going back to my explanation that the numbers measure the number of clock cycles it takes the memory to perform its tasks: Because the clock speeds of DDR3 are so much higher than DDR or even DDR2, it can complete each individual clock cycle A LOT faster. In other words, while it may take 9 cycles to do a task, that’s still a lot quicker than the 2 or 3 cycles it took the DDR memory to do the same task. Keep that in mind as you shop for memory. The timings only make a good comparison between modules if you are looking at two of the same types, i.e. two DDR3 modules, but are meaningless when comparing DDR to DDR2 or DDR3.

 

Understanding Computer Memory
Because memory is such a crucial element of our computer's performance, we all understand that we need it in generous supply. However, questions remain about what kind of memory is best, what functions each memory serves and which memory is used for notebooks and PCs. See blow.
Understanding Memory
 

Because memory is such a crucial element of our computer’s performance, we all understand that we need it in generous supply. However, questions remain about what kind of memory is best, what functions each memory serves and which memory is used for notebooks and PCs. The following information will answer your questions.
 

DDR PC Memory
A dual inline memory module (DIMM) consists of a number of memory components (usually black) that are attached to a printed circuit board (usually green). The gold pins on the bottom of the DIMM provide a connection between the module and a socket on a larger printed circuit board. The pins on the front and back of a DIMM are not connected to each other.

184-pin DIMMs are used to provide DDR memory for desktop computers. Standard 184-pin DIMMs are available in PC2100 DDR, PC2700 DDR, and PC3200 DDR.

To use DDR memory, your system motherboard must have 184-pin DIMM slots and a DDR-enabled chipset. A DDR DIMM will not fit into a standard SDRAM DIMM socket.

The number of black components on a 184-pin DIMM can vary, but it always has 92 pins on the front and 92 pins on the back, for a total of 184. 184-pin DIMMs are approximately 5.25 inches long and 1.25 inches high, though the heights can vary. While 184-pin DIMMs and 168-pin DIMMs are approximately the same size, 184-pin DIMMs have only one notch within the row of pins.

DDR2 PC Memory:
A dual inline memory module (DIMM) consists of a number of memory components (usually black) that are attached to a printed circuit board (usually green). The gold pins on the bottom of the DIMM provide a connection between the module and a socket on a larger printed circuit board. The pins on the front and back of a DIMM are not connected to each other.
240-pin DIMMs are used to provide DDR2 memory for desktop computers. DDR2 is a leading-edge generation of memory with an improved architecture that allows it to transmit data very fast. Each 240-pin DIMM provides a 64-bit data path (72-bit for ECC or registered or Fully Buffered modules).

To use DDR2 memory, your system motherboard must have 240-pin DIMM slots and a DDR2-enabled chipset. A DDR2 DIMM will not fit into a standard SDRAM DIMM socket or a DDR DIMM socket.

The number of black components on a 240-pin DIMM can vary, but it always has 120 pins on the front and 120 pins on the back, for a total of 240. 240-pin DIMMs are approximately 5.25 inches long and 1.18 inches high, though the heights can vary. While 240-pin DDR2 DIMMs, 184-pin DDR DIMMs, and 168-pin DIMMs are approximately the same size, 240-pin DIMMs and 184-pin DIMMs have only one notch within the row of pins. The notch in a 240-pin DDR2 DIMM is closer toward the center of the module.

DDR and DDR2 Notebook Memory:
A small outline dual inline memory module (SODIMM) consists of a number of memory components (usually black) that are attached to a printed circuit board (usually green). SODIMMs get their name because they are smaller and thinner than regular DIMMs. The gold pins on the bottom of the SODIMM provide a connection between the module and a socket on a larger printed circuit board. The pins on the front and back of a SODIMM are not connected.

200-pin SODIMMs are used to provide DDR and DDR2 memory for notebook computers. 200-pin SODIMMs are available in PC2700 DDR, PC3200 DDR, DDR2 PC6400, DDR2 PC5400, DDR2 PC4200 and DDR2 PC3200 . To use DDR or DDR2 memory, your system motherboard must have 200-pin SODIMM slots and a DDR- or DDR2-enabled chipset. A DDR or DDR2 SODIMM will not fit into a standard SDRAM SODIMM socket.

The number of black components on a 200-pin SODIMM can vary, but it always has 100 pins on the front and 100 pins on the back, for a total of 200. 200-pin SODIMMs are approximately 2.625 inches long and 1.25 inches high, though the heights can vary. Like 144-pin SODIMMs, 200-pin SODIMMs have one small notch within the row of pins; however, the notch on the 200-pin SODIMMs is closer to the left side of the module.

 

SDRAM Memory:
A dual inline memory module (DIMM) consists of a number of memory components (usually black) that are attached to a printed circuit board (usually green). The gold pins on the bottom of the DIMM provide a connection between the module and a socket on a larger printed circuit board. The pins on the front and back of a DIMM are not connected.

168-pin DIMMs are commonly found in Pentium® and Athlon® systems. 168-pin DIMMs are available in 66MHz SDRAM, PC100 SDRAM, and PC133 SDRAM. When upgrading, be sure to match the memory technology that is already in your system.

The number of black components on a 168-pin DIMM can vary, but it always has 84 pins on the front and 84 pins on the back, for a total of 168. 168-pin DIMMs are approximately 5.25 inches long and 1.375 inches high, though the heights can vary. They have two small notches within the row of pins along the bottom of the module.

SDRAM Notebook Memory:
A small outline dual inline memory module (SODIMM) consists of a number of memory components (usually black) that are attached to a printed circuit board (usually green). SODIMMs get their name because they are smaller and thinner than regular DIMMs. The gold pins on the bottom of the SODIMM provide a connection between the module and a socket on a larger printed circuit board. The pins on the front and back of a SODIMM are not connected.

144-pin SODIMMs are commonly found in notebook computers. 144-pin SODIMMs are available in 66MHz SDRAM, PC100 SDRAM, and PC133 SDRAM. When upgrading, be sure to match the memory technology that is already in your system.

The number of black components on a 144-pin SODIMM can vary, but it always has 72 pins on the front and 72 pins on the back, for a total of 144. 144-pin SODIMMs are approximately 2.625 inches long and 1.25 inches high, though the heights can vary. They have one small notch within the row of pins along the bottom of the module.

SIMM Memory:
single inline memory module (SIMM) consists of a number of memory components (usually black) that are attached to a printed circuit board (usually green). The gold or tin pins on the bottom of the SIMM provide a connection between the module and a socket on a larger printed circuit board. The pins on the front and back of a SIMM are connected.

72-pin SIMMs are commonly found in older desktop computers, such as the 486 and early Pentium® models. 72-pin SIMMs are available in FPM or EDO. When upgrading, be sure to match the memory technology that is already in your system.

The number of black components on a 72-pin SIMM can vary. 72-pin SIMMs are approximately 4.25 inches long and 1 inch high, though the heights can vary. They have one notch on the bottom left and one notch in the center of the module.

 
How Much Memory Do You Really Have?
When you look at the specifications for a computer, it will display the installed memory, and typically the maximum memory that can be installed. However, while these are real values, they represent a potential useable memory depending upon the installed operating system, and other factors. The actual useable memory may be different (lower) from these values. The reason is simply that a computer may have a limitation in the operating system (such as Windows 32 bit versions), or configured to use shared memory, which reduces the amount of RAM that is available to the CPU by using some of it for other purposes, such as for video memory. In some cases, you can control the maximum useable memory through system settings, by upgrading from a 32 bit to a 64 bit version of Windows XP or Vista, or by upgrading to a video card that has internal onboard video memory.

But always remember, that the amount of memory that your system reports, is not always the amount of actual installed memory. For example, if you have 4GB installed, 32 bit versions of Windows will typically report 3.2GB due to a limitation of Windows itself.  Also note that different Windows programs report available and maximum memory differently, which can be confusing. If you find that you need more memory, we suggest expanding your system memory, since this is the most effective performance increase, and the one that is easiest to perform .

How Much Memory Does Windows Supports?

Windows Vista

Memory Limit

Windows Vista 32 Bit 64 Bit
Ultimate 4 GB 128 GB
Enterprise 4 GB 128 GB
Business 4 GB 128 GB
Home Premium 4 GB 128 GB
Home Basic 4 GB 8 GB
Starter 1 GB --------
MFC-8660DN


Be sure to check your computer's specification for the maximum memory of your computer!

Regardless of which version of windows you are using, 32 bit system are typically limited to a maximum of 4 GB of RAM, except for the windows Starter Editions.
 

Memory Limit

Windows XP 32 Bit 64 Bit
Professional 4 GB 128 GB
Home 4 GB ---------
Starter Edition 512 MB ---------

The above values are for physical, not usable memory.

The amount of memory that your system reports, is not always the amount of actual installed memory. For example, if you have 4GB installed, 32 bit versions of Windows will typically report 3.2GB due to a limitation of Windows itself.  Also note that different Windows programs report available and maximum memory differently, which can be confusing. If you find that you need more memory, we suggest expanding your system memory, since this is the most effective performance increase, and the one that is easiest to perform.

 

 


Motherboard
The main circuit board inside a computer, which contains the central processing unit, the bus, memory sockets, expansion slots, and other components. Additional boards, called daughter boards, can be plugged into the motherboard.

LCDMonitor
LCD

Liquid Crystal Display.A type of display used on digital watches, calculators, and laptop computers.LCDs are lighter and consume much less power than other computer displays.Liquid crystals are rod-shaped molecules which spiral when they are exposed to an electrical charge.Polarized light passing through the layer of liquid crystal cells is twisted along the spiral path of the molecules.

AT motherboard
Advanced Technology motherboard. The motherboard that originally came with the IBM PC/AT computers, or one following the same design.


AT
Advanced Technology. An IBM PC introduced in 1984 that was the most advanced PC at that time, with an Intel 80286 processor, 16-bit bus, and 1.2MB floppy drive.


IBM
International Business Machines Corporation, Armonk, NY. The world's largest computer company, begun in New York in 1911 as the Computing- Tabulating-Recording Company and renamed IBM in 1924.IBM sold tabulating machines and punch cards from the 1920s through the 1960s, and started selling computers in 1953. IBM sells mainframes, minicomputers, workstations, personal computers, and software, including the OS/2 operating system.

In 1991, IBM joined with Apple Computer and Motorola to produce the PowerPC chip


Motherboard
The main circuit board inside a computer, which contains the central processing unit, the bus, memory sockets, expansion slots, and other components. Additional boards, called daughter boards, can be plugged into the motherboard.


IBM Hard Drive

Hard drive
(HD) Hard disk drive. A disk drive that reads from and writes to a hard disk.


uninterruptible power supply
(UPS). A backup power supply that works when electrical power to the computer is interrupted. A small UPS can supply battery power for a few minutes so files can be saved and the computer can be shut down properly; a larger UPS can supply power for much longer


Tandem processors
Two processors connected together.


Packaged software
An application program or collection of programs developed to meet the needs of a variety of users, rather than custom designed for a specific user or company. Packaged software is sold to the general public.


Pack
To store data in compressed form in such a way that the data can be restored to its original form (unpacked).


Page mode memory
A way of organizing memory access used commonly in DRAM chips. Ordinarily, each bit in memory is found by its row and column coordinates. Using page mode, a memory location can be found faster, because each row, or page, only needs to be selected once for all columns in that row.


Page printer
A printer that prints a full page at a time; for example, a laser printer.


Page recognition
The ability of software to recognize different kinds of items on a scanned page. Page recognition software can distinguish text from pictures, and converts text on the page into computer characters by means of optical character recognition (OCR).


Page zero
Memory locations 0 to 4095 in virtual memory.


PageMaker
A desktop publishing program from Adobe Systems, Inc., Mountain View, California. It was originally introduced by Aldus Corporation in a Macintosh version; it is now also available for PC.


Adobe Systems, Inc.
The creators of PostScript fonts, Adobe Acrobat, PDFs, Adobe PhotoShop, and Adobe Type Manager; a pioneering company in desktop publishing software. Adobe's Web site is at www.adobe.com.


Macintosh
A family of 32-bit personal computers introduced by Apple in 1984; the first widely used computers with a graphical user interface, a mouse, and windows. Rather than typing in commands, users open software and copy or delete files by clicking on icons on the screen that look like file folders, a trash can, and other things one would find in a real office. Macs quickly became popular because of their user-friendly interface. In 1994, PowerMacs, which use a PowerPC CPU, became available. The Macintosh Operating System is now called MacOS.


PC

Short for Personal Computer. There are many kinds of personal computers; PC usually refers to personal computers that conform to the standard of the IBM PC There are more IBM PCs and PC clones in use worldwide than any other type of computer. The IBM PCs and PC clones are based on the Intel microprocessors and mostly are run with DOS or Windows. Some IBM PC models are the XT, AT, and the PS/2 numbered series which includes Models 25, 30, 50, 55, 60, 70, 80, and so forth.


Intel Corporation
A microelectronics manufacturer in Santa Clara, CA, known for Intel and Pentium microprocessors, integrated circuits, communications products, and other computer components. Intel produced the first microprocessor in 1971.Founded by Gordon Moore and Robert Noyce in 1968, Intel was a pioneer in developing semiconductor memory to replace magnetic core memory. Intel is located at http://www.intel.com.


MS-DOS
Microsoft Disk Operating System. A personal computer operating system from Microsoft, which is similar to IBM's PC-DOS. It is a single user system that runs one program at a time because of limited memory. Add-on memory boards can expand DOS capabilities. See also DOS.


DOS
Disk Operating System. More computers worldwide have DOS than any other operating system. There are different versions of it: PC-DOS for IBM PCs, MS-DOS for non-IBM PCs, plus Apple DOS, Amiga DOS, Novell DOS, etc.

IBM
International Business Machines Corporation, Armonk, NY. The world's largest computer company, begun in New York in 1911 as the Computing- Tabulating-Recording Company and renamed IBM in 1924.IBM sold tabulating machines and punch cards from the 1920s through the 1960s, and started selling computers in 1953. IBM sells mainframes, minicomputers, workstations, personal computers, and software, including the OS/2 operating system. In 1991, IBM joined with Apple Computer and Motorola to produce the PowerPC chip.


Apple Computer, Inc.
One of the largest personal computer manufacturers, located in Cupertino, California. The company was founded by Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak, in a garage. The Apple II, released in 1977, became very popular for educational use. VisiCalc, the first computer spreadsheet, was designed for the Apple II. Another computer in the Apple line was the Lisa, introduced in 1983.In 1984, Apple released the first Macintosh computers.


Pagination
The numbering of pages. Many programs can be set up to automatically number pages when a file is printed.


Painter
A paint program for Macintosh and Windows from Fractal Design Corporation, Aptos, California.

Partition
A division of a disk or storage area.

PC Card
(Personal Computer Card).Trademark name for a lightweight, removable module about the size of a credit card that adds features to a portable computer, developed by the Personal Computer Memory Card International Association (PCMCIA).It is also called the PCMCIA card. A PC Card may add memory, modem and networking capability, a radio transceiver, more hard drive space, or enhanced sound. It is a plug and play device which uses a 16-bit socket and a 68-pin connector. All PC Cards are the same length and width, but varying thicknesses are used for laptops, palmtops, etc., and according to amount of storage space required.


PC compatible
A personal computer which is compatible with the IBM PC.


PCI
Peripheral Component Interconnect. A personal computer local bus designed by Intel, which runs at 33 MHz and supports Plug and Play. It provides a high-speed connection with peripherals and allows connection of seven peripheral devices. It is mostly used with Pentium computers but is processor independent and therefore able to work with other processors. It plugs into a PCI slot on the motherboard and can be used along with an ISA or EISA bus.


PCI bus
Peripheral Component Interconnect bus. A personal computer local bus designed by Intel, which runs at 33 MHz and supports Plug and Play. It provides a high-speed connection with peripherals and allows connection of seven peripheral devices. It is mostly used with Pentium computers but is processor independent and therefore able to work with other processors. It plugs into a PCI slot on the motherboard and can be used along with an ISA or EISA bus.


PCI slot
Peripheral Component Interconnect slot. A slot on the motherboard which is available to plug in a PCI bus.


PCI slots
Peripheral Component Interconnect slots. A PCI slot is a socket on the motherboard of the computer where a PCI bus can be plugged in.


PCL
Printer Control Language. The control language for HP LaserJet printers, also supported by many other printers and typesetting machines. PCL tells the printer how to print a page, as does a page description language.


PCM
A generic term for the decoding technology used in the creation of WAV files.


PCMCIA
(Personal Computer Memory Card International Association; also People Can't Memorize Computer Industry Acronyms).A Sunnyvale, California nonprofit trade association created to standardize the connection of peripherals to portable computers. PCMCIA developed the PC Card (often called the PCMCIA card), a lightweight, removable module about the size of a credit card that adds features to a portable computer.


PCMCIA card
(Personal Computer Memory Card International Association card).A lightweight, removable module about the size of a credit card that adds features to a portable computer. Its official name is the PC Card. A PCMCIA card may add memory, modem and networking capability, a radio transceiver, more hard drive space, or enhanced sound. It is a plug and play device which uses a 16-bit socket and a 68-pin connector. All PCMCIA cards are the same length and width, but varying thicknesses are used for laptops, palmtops, etc., and according to amount of storage space required.


PCS
(Personal Communication Services).Wireless communications services that use the 1900 MHz (1.9 GHz) band rather than the 800 MHz used for cellular, and that use digital technology for transmission and reception.


PD
Public Domain. Belonging to the public; not protected by copyright.


PDA
Personal Digital Assistant. A pocket-sized personal computer. PDAs usually can store phone numbers, appointments, and to-do lists. Some PDAs have a small keyboard, others have only a special pen that is used for input and output. A PDA can also have a wireless fax modem. Files can be created on a PDA which are later entered into a larger computer. Apple's Newton is a well-known PDA.


Pentium
An Intel high-performance microprocessor introduced in 1993, also called P5, 586, or 80586.The name Pentium refers to the fact that it is the fifth microprocessor in the 80x86 series. It is about twice as fast as the 486.


Pentium II
An Intel microprocessor that is an improvement on the design of the Pentium Pro, with 2 million transistors added to bring the total up to 7.5 million, and speeds of 233, 266, 300, and 333 MHz. In addition, the Pentium II features Dual Independent Bus (DIB) architecture; a singled edge contact (SEC) cartridge that fits into Slot 1; a 32K L1 cache; a 512K L2 cache; and support for MMX.


Pentium III
The Intel microprocessor that follows the Pentium II. The Pentium III runs at 450, 500, 533, 550, or 600 MHz and offers new multimedia capabilities, including full-screen, full-motion video and realistic graphics, and improvements in high-performance business desktop computing. Other features include 70 new instructions; P6 architecture; 133- or 100-MHz system bus; and a 512K L2 cache.


Pentium Pro
Successor to the Pentium microprocessor; also called P6, 686, or 80686.The P6 has internal RISC architecture and a CISC-RISC translator. It is faster than the Pentium for 32-bit software but slower for 16-bit software.


Peripheral
Any piece of hardware connected to a computer; any part of the computer outside the CPU and working memory. Some examples of peripherals are keyboards, mice, monitors, printers, scanners, disk and tape drives, microphones, speakers, joysticks, plotters, and cameras


Scanner
An input device that reads images or text and converts the data into digital signals. Graphical scanners read photos or other images into the computer and digitize them, producing bitmapped graphics files. Text scanners use optical character recognition software to read pages of text and produce editable text files. Bar code scanners, as used in stores, convert bar codes into digital information. Some types of scanners are flatbed scanners, sheet-fed scanners, hand-held scanners, and slide scanners.


Bitmap graphics or bit-map graphics
A way of displaying images on a computer screen in which each picture is represented as an array of little squares called pixels. Each pixel is stored in a specific location in memory, and corresponds to one or more bits. The number of bits per pixel determines the number of colors or shades of gray that can be displayed. Bitmap graphics can be created and edited in paint programs or photo editing programs, and can be stored in a number of file formats.


Pixel
Short for picture element. A pixel is the smallest logical unit of visual information that can be used to build an image. Pixels are the little squares that can be seen when a graphics image is enlarged. The more pixels in an image, the better its resolution.


Bit
1.(b).Short for binary digit. The smallest unit of information a computer can hold. The value of a bit is 1 or 0. 2.Top-level newsgroup category for a BITNET mailing list newsgroup.


Binary
A system of numbers having 2 as its base and using 0s and 1s for its notation. Binary code is used by computers because it works well with digital electronics and Boolean algebra.


Boole, George
(1815-1864) The mathematician who represented logical reasoning with mathematical formulas; inventor of Boolean algebra. Modern digital computing is based on Boole's work.


Boolean algebra
A system of mathematics developed by George Boole in the 1850s.Boolean algebra uses the operators AND, OR, and NOT; operations are carried out on variables which can have one of two values: 1 (true) and 0 (false).Combinations of AND, OR, and NOT are used to construct the additional functions of XOR, NAND, and NOR. Boolean algebra is very important in computers.


BITNET
Because It's Time Network. An academic computer network originally connecting IBM mainframes and VAX systems via leased lines, providing electronic mail, file transfer, electronic mailing lists, and other services. BITNET merged with CSNET, The Computer+Science Network, and became part of CREN, The Corporation for Research and Educational Networking.


Mainframe
A "mainframe" originally meant the cabinet containing the central processor unit of a very large computer. After minicomputers became available, the word mainframe came to refer to the large computer itself. The older computers used many large vacuum tubes and generated a lot of heat, thus requiring specially air-conditioned rooms. A single computer might have hundreds of users at a time. Today, because the large vacuum tubes have given way to transistors, a desktop personal computer can have as much power as a mainframe computer that once filled a whole room. Mainframes in use now often have smaller computers as front end processors.


VAX
Virtual Address eXtension. A family of 32-bit computers from Digital which use the VMS operating system. VAXes include mainframes, minicomputers, and microcomputers. The first VAX models were released in 1977.


CSNET
Computer+Science Network. A large computer network, including universities, research labs, and some commercial enterprises. It originated in the United States, and has some members in other countries. CSNET merged with BITNET to form CREN (The Corporation for Research and Educational Networking).

 


CREN
The Corporation for Research and Educational Networking. A corporation formed by the merging of BITNET (Because It’s Time Network) and CSNET (Computer+Science Network).


Peripheral Component Interconnect
(PCI).A personal computer local bus designed by Intel, which runs at 33 MHz and supports Plug and Play. It provides a high-speed connection with peripherals and allows connection of seven peripheral devices. It is mostly used with Pentium computers but is processor independent and therefore able to work with other processors. It plugs into a PCI slot on the motherboard and can be used along with an ISA or EISA bus.


Peripheral device
Any piece of hardware connected to a computer; any part of the computer outside the CPU and working memory. Some examples of peripheral devices are keyboards, mice, monitors, printers, scanners, disk and tape drives, microphones, speakers, joysticks, plotters, and cameras.


Peripherals
The hardware connected to a computer; the parts of the computer outside the CPU and working memory. Some examples of peripherals are keyboards, mice, monitors, printers, scanners, disk and tape drives, microphones, speakers, joysticks, plotters, and cameras.


Per seat
A way of licensing software based on the number of workstations on which it will be installed and used.


Personal Computer Memory Card International Association
(PCMCIA).A Sunnyvale, California nonprofit trade association created to standardize the connection of peripherals to portable computers. PCMCIA developed the PC Card (often called the PCMCIA card), a lightweight, removable module about the size of a credit card that adds features to a portable computer.

PGML
Precision Graphics Markup Language. A two-dimensional, scalable graphics language for increasing the ease and precision with which graphic images can be produced and integrated into documents. PGML is an application of XML, and PGML graphics can be modified with style sheets along with the XML documents that contain them.


PKZIP
A file compression utility from PKWare, available as shareware. The decompression utility is PKUNZIP.PKZIP was originally for MS-DOS, but third-party versions are available for other platforms.


For proper care and maintenance of your new battery, please check the following info:

How Should I Use My New Battery?

The New Battery Isn't Charging to 100%. What's the Deal?

How Can I Maximize Battery Performance?

How Are Batteries Rated? (What are Volts, Amps, and WHR?)

How Long Do Batteries Last (What is the Life Span of the New Battery)?

Should I Recycle the Old Batter? How?

How Long Will the New Main Battery Power the Laptop?

My Laptop Is Not Charging the Battery Anymore. What Do I do?

How Should I Use My New Battery?

A new Li-ion battery usually comes in a discharged condition (20% to 75%) and must be fully cycled before use. Lithium ion chemistry prefers partial discharge to deep discharge, so it's best to avoid taking the battery all the way down to zero. Since lithium-ion chemistry does not have a "memory", you do not harm the battery pack with a partial discharge. If the voltage of a lithium-ion cell drops below a certain level, it's ruined. Upon initial use (or after prolonged storage period) the battery may require more than three charge/discharge cycles before achieving maximum capacity. It is normal for a battery to become warm to the touch during charging and discharging.

If the battery will not be in use for a month or longer, it is recommended that the battery be fully charged and then removed from the device and stored in a cool, dry, clean place. A charged battery will eventually lose its charge if unused. It may therefore be necessary to recharge the battery after a storage period.

When charging the battery for the first time the device may indicate that charging is complete after just 10 or 15 minutes. This is a normal phenomenon with rechargeable batteries. Remove the battery from the device, reinsert it and repeat the charging procedure.

Actual battery run-time depends upon the power demands made by the equipment. In the case of notebook computers, screen brightness, the use of the CPU, the hard drive, and other peripherals results in an additional drain upon the battery effectively reducing the battery's run-time. The total run-time of the battery is also heavily dependent upon the design of the equipment. To ensure maximum performance of the battery, optimize the computer's power management features. Refer to the computer manual for further instructions.

The New Battery Isn't Charging to 100%. What's the Deal?

We generally recommend an overnight charge (approximately 6-12 hours). Rechargeable batteries should be cycled – fully charged and then discharged to about 20% remaining– three to four times initially to allow them to reach their full capacity. Avoid taking the battery all the way down to zero. (Note: it is normal for a battery to become warm to the touch during charging and discharging). New batteries are hard for the device to charge; they have never been fully charged and are therefore “unformed”. Sometimes the device's charger will stop charging a new battery before it is fully charged. If this happens, remove the battery from the device and then reinsert it. The charge cycle should begin again. This may happen several times during the first battery charge. Don't worry; it's perfectly normal.

On some notebooks, it may be necessary to update the BIOS of the notebook in order to achieve maximum capacity. It is often the case with older laptops that cannot properly detect the higher capacity batteries.

How Can I Maximize Battery Performance?

There are several steps you can take to insure that you get maximum performance from the battery:

Break In New Batteries: New batteries come in a discharged condition and must be fully cycled before use. It is recommended that you fully charge and discharge the new battery to about 20% remaining at least three to four times to allow it to reach its maximum rated capacity. Avoid taking the battery all the way down to zero.

Keep the Batteries Clean: It's a good idea to clean dirty battery contacts with a cotton swab and alcohol. This helps maintain a good connection between the battery and the portable device.

Exercise the Battery: Do not leave the battery dormant for long periods of time. We recommend using the battery at least once every two to three weeks. If the battery has not been used for a long period of time, perform the new battery break in procedure described above.

Battery Storage: If you don't plan on using the battery for a month or more, we recommend fully charging it and then storing it in a clean, dry, cool place away from heat and metal objects. Batteries will self-discharge during storage (about 5% per month with Li-ion cells); remember to break them in before use.

Notebook Users: To get maximum performance from the battery, fully optimize the notebooks power management features prior to use. Power management is a trade off: better power conservation in exchange for lesser computer performance. The power management system conserves battery power by setting the processor to run at a slower speed, dimming the screen, spinning down the hard drive when it's not is use and causing the machine to go into sleep mode when inactive. The notebook user's guide will provide information relating to specific power management features. It may also be necessary to update the BIOS of the notebook in order to achieve maximum performance especially if the original battery has a lower capacity (mAH). Please visit the notebook manufacturer's website for information regarding BIOS updates.

How Are Batteries Rated? (What are Volts, Amps, and WHR?)

There are two ratings on every battery; volts and amp-hours (AH). The AH rating may also be given as milliamp-hours (mAH), which are one-thousandth of an amp-hour (for example, 1 AH is 1000mAH). The voltage of the new battery should always match the voltage of your original unless the batteries are different chemistries (NiMH and Li-Ion batteries have different voltage ratings, even if they're for the same laptop). Some Hi-Capacity batteries will have higher amp-hour ratings than the original battery found in the device. This is indicative of a longer run-time (higher capacity) and will not cause any incompatibilities. However, it may be necessary to update the BIOS of some notebooks to achieve maximum capacity.

Batteries are also rated by Watt-Hours (WHR), perhaps the simplest rating of all. This is found by multiplying the Volts and the Amp-Hour together. A battery rated at 14.4 Volts, 3600mAh (or 3.6 AH) translates into 51.84 WHR (14.4 x 3.6). The term Watt Hour signifies the energy needed to power one watt for one hour. Thus this battery can power 51.84 watts for one hour. Suppose your laptop runs at 17.28 watts. Then, this battery could power your laptop for 3 hours (51.84 divided by 17.28).

How Long Do Batteries Last (What is the Life Span of the New Battery)?

The life of a rechargeable lithium-ion battery operating under normal conditions is generally between 300 to 500 charge-discharge cycles. This translates into about one and a half years of good battery life for the average user. Some users will experience considerably less or more life depending on their usage. As the rechargeable battery begins to depreciate, the user will notice a decline in the running time of the battery. When the battery that originally operated the notebook for two hours is only supplying the user with an hour's worth of use, it's time for a new one.

Should I Recycle the Old Battery? How?

Be environmental conscious – Do NOT throw these batteries in the trash. If you don't know where your local recycling facility is located, call the local Environmental Control Authority. They will provide you with the address of the recycling center nearest to you.

How Long Will the New Main Battery Power the Laptop?

Battery run-time on a laptop is difficult to determine. Actual battery running time depends upon the power demands made by the equipment. The use of the screen, the hard drive, and other accessories results in an additional drain upon the battery, effectively reducing its running time. The total run-time of the battery is also dependent upon the design of the equipment. Generally, a new Hi-Capacity battery will run 30% to 50% longer than the old battery did when it was new.

My Laptop Is Not Charging the Battery Anymore. What Do I do?

There is always a possibility that either the notebook or the battery is defective. The best way of determining which one is by comparing either the battery or the notebook to a known good one. FOR EXAMPLE: If the battery does not charge at all, yet another battery charges and discharges properly in the same notebook, then we can assume that the battery is bad. OR: If the battery works fine on one notebook but not the other, then it is the notebook that will need servicing.

If your battery is defective and is still under warranty, please contact us to request an RMA number to mail the battery in for replacement.



CompuTec Service Center, Corp.
3255 Wilshire Blvd. Suite: 1803
Los Angeles, California  90010
USA
Phone: (213) 736-5250
Toll Free: (213) 736-5298
Fax: (213) 736-5298


For All of Your Computer Needs!
© Copyright 2012 - CompuTec Service Center, Corp.
Privacy Policy